- A. General Materials & Mathematics
- B. Statics
- C. Kinematics & Dynamics
- D. Rotational Mechanics
- E. Gravitation & Astronomy
- F. Fluid Mechanics
- G. Vibrations & Mechanical Waves
- H. Sound
- I. Thermodynamics
- J. Electrostatics & Magnetostatics
- K. Electromagnetic Principles
- L. Geometrical Optics
- M. Wave Optics
- N. Spectra & Color
- O. Vision
- P. Modern Physics
I1-51. Rubber At Ln Temperature
To demonstrate how a normally elastic material at room temperature becomes rigid at very low temperatures.
Dewar with liquid nitrogen, rubber hose, tongs, glove and hammer.
Handle cold hose with tongs or gloves. Wear goggles for safety.
Dip the rubber hose into liquid nitrogen, then use the hammer to break it up into a zillion pieces.
Martin H. Edwards, Cooling by Immersion in Liquid Air, AJP 20, 313-314, (1952). Kathy
Malone and Tejwant Datta, Beware the Frozen Squash Ball, TPT 32, 351 (1994).